Menopause signals the end of menstruation that on average occurs at 52 years of age. Many women present with irregular bleeding as they reach menopause. In case of postmenopausal bleeding, the woman needs to be seen urgently by the gynaecologist, in order to exclude pathological causes.

Gynaecological ultrasound and clinical examination are necessary for the investigation of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding.

The ultrasound is a reliable method for diagnosing endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids entering the cavity of the uterus (endometrium). In some cases gynaecologcial ultrasound examination, combined with clinical findings, may reveal a serious endometrial pathology, like endometrial hyperplasia or cancer of the uterus.

If endometrial pathology is suspected in women with postmenopausal bleeding, further investigations such as hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy are urgently required.